The UK has 123 CAA licenced or certificated aerodromes which are required to meet the relevant obstacle clearance surfaces (OCS) for take-off and approach at the airfield.
As such, all buildings or other obstacles, including temporary obstructions such as cranes must be beneath the relevant approach and take-off OCS for all licensed runways. Whilst there are no legal requirements, the safety implications of building and other obstacles on or close to the approach and take-off paths at non-licensed aerodromes need to be taken into account in planning consents, based on aircraft performance, pilot experience and other safety criteria.
In addition to the OCS, new buildings and other obstacles at or close to an airport or airfield can impact on the performance of navigational aids and radar installations. As such. the possible impact on aviation needs to be assessed. This particularly applies in the case of new wind turbines which can create clutter on both primary and secondary radar screens. Solar installations can also deflect radar signals and create glare for pilots.
Further safeguarding criteria that need to be assessed include the risk of bird strikes, particularly if the proposed development includes or increases the size of areas of water or waste disposal. Many safeguarding maps require local authorities to consider any possible increased risk of bird strikes up to 10-15 miles from the airport or airfield.
The UK’s busier airports with over 18,000 air transport movements (ATMs) per annum are all required to have Public Safety Zones (PSZ) at the ends of each runway where development is restricted within these zones to minimise the risk of death or injury in the event of an aircraft accident on take-off or landing. The PSZs are elongated isosceles triangles and are based on the calculated risk of an aircraft accident causing death or injury to those on the ground. Whilst there is a general presumption of no development within PSZs, there are certain exceptions, including the use of risk appraisal and cost-benefit analysis to justify some development in particular circumstances.
Farnborough Airport – Public Safety Zones
It should be noted that, whilst the safeguarding criteria described above should be applied, there are no other statutory safeguarding requirements for other planned development close to the airport or airfield. It is possible however that some development may occur underneath or close to flight paths but not necessarily infringe the airport or airfield’s obstacle clearance surface. An issue here is that this development might potentially impact on aviation safety if it restricts the availability of a suitable forced landing area for aircraft in the event of an engine failure or other emergency. In this context, it should be noted that, whilst there is no statutory requirement for safeguarding in these cases, it is generally regarded as good practice for such issues to be taken into account in planning decisions. In practice, the pilot has full responsibility for flight safety outside the airport or airfield boundary, although it is possible that an airfield may object to a nearby development if it believes that pilots would be unwilling to use the airfield in these circumstances.